- Workshop Encefalopatia Traumática Crônica: Projeto dos Jogadores de Futebol. Dia 16/02/2016 Inrad: 1o andar anfiteatro 3 05/02/2016
- 7T papers 20/08/2015
- The 4th Latin American School for Education, Cognitive and Neural Sciences 09/10/2013
- Journal Club – September 25, 2013 26/09/2013
- CANCELADA-Aula de Segurança em Ressonância Magnética 03/10/2013 16/09/2013
Early nicotine exposure during brain development may cause long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral alterations in adulthood. Jung et al. present insights into the mechanisms mediating these developmental changes.
Developmental knockdown of Shank3 affects excitatory synaptic transmission, activity of midbrain dopamine neurons, and behavior. Optogenetic dopamine release or enhancing metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling rescues these deficits.
During a binary choice task, neuronal activity in monkey orbitofrontal cortex alternated between two network states. The internal dynamics revealed by a linear decoder correlated with the reaction time and with the eventual choice.
In this Perspective the authors provide a comparison of recent neurophysiological findings on the pathophysiology of three major movement disorders: Huntington's disease, l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and dystonia. Both clinical and preclinical studies show that these hyperkinetic disorders share mechanisms underlying synaptic scaling and synaptic plasticity alterations in the basal ganglia–thalamo-cortical network.
Hedonic value is a dominant aspect of olfactory perception. The authors combine immediate early gene mapping and optogenetics to show that the degree of behavioral attraction to odors is represented along the antero-posterior axis of the ventral olfactory bulb. This suggests that organization of the olfactory bulb reflects hedonic value.
Cells respond to mechanical signals during development and after injury. Poitelon et al. report for the first time that myelin-forming glia activate the Hippo pathway effectors Yap and Taz in response to mechanical stimuli, and that they are required for Schwann cell development and myelination in vivo.
During evolution, the neocortex has expanded dramatically and folded in certain species, providing superior sensorimotor and cognitive abilities. Expansion of neural progenitors called bRGs and IPCs plays key roles in expansion and folding of the neocortex. Using mouse models, comparative genomics and human cerebral organoids, this study shows that Shh signaling expands bRG and IPC populations, leading to neocortical expansion and folding.
In fish, prostaglandin F2α is a female hormone regulating ovulation, but it is also a pheromone that triggers male reproductive behavior. In this study, the authors identified an olfactory receptor for prostaglandin F2α, which, when mutated, leads to impaired courtship behavior in male zebrafish.
Developmental nicotine exposure increased cortical dendritic complexity, levels of Ash2l and Mef2c (components of a histone methyltransferase complex), and H3MeK4 trimethylation at promoters of genes involved in synapse maintenance. Knockdown and overexpression experiments in utero showed that Ash2l and Mef2c regulate nicotine-mediated dendritic remodeling and changes in passive avoidance behavior.
Cocaine and morphine produce similar addiction-related behaviors, but different adaptations at accumbens synapses. The authors explain this paradox, showing that both drugs generate silent synapses in distinct neuronal types: cocaine in D1 type and morphine in D2 type. Withdrawal strengthens cocaine-generated silent synapses and weakens morphine-generated ones, producing common circuit effects.